The time horizon outlook: an alternative to technical debt

In Technical debt is not a thing, I argue that we should stop using the metaphor of technical debt to inform strategy. Instead, I propose a time horizon model, in which our goal as engineers (or what have you) is to produce the most value possible over some time window.

In the technical debt model, we identify some inefficiency in our workflow process and trace it back to some prior decision that necessitated this inefficiency. That decision, we say, entailed an accumulation of technical debt. We traded away our future productivity for an earlier delivery date. If we want that productivity back, we must “pay off” the debt by rectifying that decision.

In the time horizon model, by contrast, we don’t worry about how we arrived at the existing sociotechnical system. Over the history of the product, we’ve made many decisions to sacrifice completeness for expediency. In making those decisions we went down a path that ultimately led us to the system as it exists today. We can’t go back and choose a different path: there’s only forward.

Let’s say we’ve got a SaaS product that relies on manually generated TLS certificates. We have to do 2 hours of toil every 3 months to renew these certs.

If we believe in technical debt, we might look back at the decision to make cert renewal a manual process and say, “By not automating this, we took on technical debt. We must pay off this debt.” We’d make a ticket, give it the technical-debt tag, and eventually pick it up as part of our 20% time commitment to technical debt paydown.

By contrast, in the time horizon model, our team’s stated raison d’être is simply to produce the most value possible within our agreed-upon time window.

So instead, we’ll say something like “Manual cert renewal costs 2 hours of labor every 3 months. It would take us 15 hours of work to automate.” Those 15 hours could instead be spent delivering value directly, so we should only undertake this project if it will free us up to deliver more total value between now and the time horizon:

Our time horizonThe estimated time investment
(which is also the opportunity
cost)
The payoff over the time horizonOur decision
3 months15 hours2 hoursDon’t do it
1 year15 hours8 hoursDon’t do it
3 years15 hours24 hoursMaybe do it
5 years15 hours40 hoursMaybe do it

Of course, just because a given time investment passes the time horizon test doesn’t necessarily mean we should make that investment. We still need to compare it to the set of other efforts we could undertake, and devise an overall strategy that maximizes the value we’ll deliver over our time window.

The horizon model gives us a basis for making these comparisons, and lets us establish a lower bound for the expected return on our time investments. It helps us focus on the right things.